Nálezy podle období
Atypidae 0-19001901-19501951-20002001-2018
Atypus affinis (Eichwald, 1830) Téměř ohrožený 6x 259x 34x 299x

Atypus affinis (Eichwald, 1830)

České jménosklípkánek hnědý
Stupeň ohroženíTéměř ohrožený
Nálezy299 nálezů, 43 kvadrátů
První nález 1941, F. Miller, Miller 1941
Poslední nález 2015 , Ondřej Machač
Areál rozšířeníEuropean - Me. (Af.
Fytogeografická oblast(Thermo), Meso
Původnost stanovišťclimax
Vlhkost stanovišťdry, semi-humid
StratumGround layer
Osvětlení stanovišťsemi-open, partly shaded
Hojnost výskytuscarce
Nadm. výška300-500

Literatura

 © Ondřej Machač
Pavouci České republiky; Nový druh třesavky pro území České republiky, aneb další synantrop za dveřmi (nebo před?); Zajímavý nález tropické maloočky v Hranicích na Moravě; Katalogy pavouků a evidence prvonálezů; Snovačka půdní (Steatoda triangulosa) ve volné přírodě v ČR; Poznámka k výskytu listovníků Philodromus margaritatus a P. fuscomarginatusNová lokalita sklípkánka hnědého (Atypus affinis); Zoologické dny Brno 2017; Česko-britský arachnologický seminář v Praze; Exkurze Mohelenský mlýn 2017; Arachnologická exkurze Mostecko 2017; Přírodovědecký spolek Arachne; Obsah původního Arachnologického spravodaje v minulosti; Čestní členové České arachnologické společnosti; Arachnologická knihovna Jiřího Bauma; Česká bibliografie 2017; Britská bibliografie – The Newsletter 138; Inventarizace 2016; Pokyny pro autory

 © Ota Zimmermann

Aim Three species of primitive spiders of the genus Atypus occur in European xerothermic habitats, where they live in burrows. The aim of this study is to explain their distribution by investigating environmental variables at sites where they occur in central Europe.

Location Over 50 sites in central Europe, Czech Republic.

Methods Data on climatic, edaphic and vegetational parameters were collected from more than 50 sites. Phytocenological data were processed using Ellenberg’s indicator values.

Results Atypus muralis was found to occur almost exclusively in dry grassland (Festucion valesiacae), exposed to a continental microclimate. Atypus affinis usually occurred in dry sparse forests (Genisto germanicae–Quercion) that provide an Atlantic microclimate. Atypus piceus occurred in dry grassland (Bromion erecti) or forest fringes (Geranion sanguinei) characterized by an intermediate microclimate. Atypus piceus and A. muralis were restricted to agglutinate calcareous soils.

Main conclusions Our results show that Atypus species colonized sites with different continentality in central Europe. These differences correspond to differences among their probable glacial refugia. Atypus muralis and A. piceus occur in habitats with a markedly continental climate, and are restricted to calcareous agglutinate soils that more efficiently buffer temperature and humidity extremes. Habitats of A. muralis and A. piceus are threatened by overgrowth of vegetation after a recent decline in grazing and by the decalcification of the landscape. However, habitats of A. affinis are stable in the present central European climate.



 © Ota Zimmermann

Compared with araneomorph spiders, karyotypes of the spider infraorder Mygalomorphae are nearly unknown. In this study we investigated karyotypes of European species of the genus Atypus (Atypidae). The male karyotype of A. muralis and A. piceus comprises 41 chromosomes, whereas female complements contain 42 chromosomes. On the other hand, both sexes of A. affinis possess 14 chromosomes only. It is the lowest diploid number found in mygalomorph spiders so far. Furthermore, obtained data suggest X0 sex chromosome system in A. piceus, A. muralis and neo-XY system in A. affinis. Karyotypes of all three Atypus species are composed of biarmed chromosomes only. Thus they differ significantly from the karyotype of A. karschi , the only other species of this genus studied so far. Its karyotype was reported to be composed of acrocentric chromosomes and possesses X1X20 sex chromosome system. All this shows that unlike in most genera of araneomorph spiders, mygalomorphs of the genus Atypus exhibit unusual diversity in the number, morphology of chromosomes, and the sex chromosome system. Considering high number of chromosomes being plesiomorphic character in spiders, then karyotypes of A. muralis and A. piceus represent ancestral situation and that of A. affinis being derived by multiple fusions. Karyotype differences in Atypus correspond with morphological differences, namely the number of segments of the posterior lateral spinnerets. Thus in contrast to published hypothesis, the 3-segmented posterior lateral spinnerets of A. affinis should present a derived state.



Statistiky

Dle měsíce v roce


Dle nadmořské výšky


Dle metody sběru (112 použitých nálezů)
Atypus affinis (Eichwald, 1830) LCSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Individuální sběr1111739
Pozorování0401
Zemní past1482171
?0101
 SamciSamiceMláďataNálezy

Dle biotopu (75 použitých nálezů)
Atypus affinis (Eichwald, 1830) LCSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
dubohabřiny101011
suché doubravy0502
Lesní okraje3003
horská vřesoviště4154
osluněné skály nižších poloh1001
reliktní bory na skalách292010
lesostepní doubravy453015
Lesy2001
Acidofilní bory222113
kamenité suti nižších poloh2002
Xerotermní travinobylinná společenstva1001
travnaté stepi18008
Kultury listnáčů0101
skalní stepi na vápenci3003
 SamciSamiceMláďataNálezy

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